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Lesson 10Inner classes and Anonymous Classes
ObjectiveExplain anonymous classes as a special case of inner classes.

Anonymous classes

Anonymous classes are a special case of local inner classes that are declared without a name. They are single-use classes that are created and defined at the same time. They are typically used to declare an instance of a class that implements an event listener interface or extends an event adapter class. There are two forms for their syntax, depending on whether they implement an interface or extend another class:
  1. Anonymous class declaration is automatically derived from a class instance creation expression.
  2. An anonymous class is never abstract.
  3. An anonymous class is always an inner class.
  4. An anonymous class is never static .
  5. An anonymous class is always implicitly final.

Implementing an interface

new InterfaceName() {
 // Implement interface methods

new SuperClassName(arguments) {
 // Class body

In the first form, the anonymous class is declared as implementing the specified interface name. No implements clause is used and the interface name is supplied as the type of object being created. The anonymous class is responsible for implementing all of the methods of the interface. When an anonymous inner class is defined as an interface, the Object class is its direct superclass. Since the Object class does not have a constructor that takes arguments, no arguments may be supplied when an anonymous class is created as an interface.
In the second form, the superclass of the class being defined is specified. No extends clause is used. The arguments (if any) that are supplied are passed to the superclass constructor when the object is created. The superclass must have a constructor with a signature that accepts the arguments. Since the class being declared does not have a name, no constructor is specified in the class body. An anonymous class may not have any modifiers.
The Anonymous program illustrates the use of anonymous inner classes.

Which variables of the encapsulating class can an inner class access, if the inner class is defined in an instance method of the encapsulating class?
(Select 4 options: )
  1. All static variables
  2. All final instance variables
  3. All instance variables
  4. All automatic variables.
  5. All final automatic variables

Answer: a, b, c, e
Consider the following code:
public class TestClass{
 static int si = 10;   int ii = 20;
 public  void inner(){
  int ai = 30; //automatic variable
  final int fai = 40; //automatic final variable
  class Inner{
   public Inner()  {  System.out.println(si+"  "+ii+"   "+fai);  }
  new Inner();
 public static void main(String[] args){  new TestClass().inner();  }

Because method inner is an instance method (i.e. non-static method), si, ii, and fai are accessible in class Inner. Note that 'ai' is not accessible.
If method inner() were a static method, "ii" would have been inaccessible.